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Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA).
We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32–211 morphospecies, and 24–128 distinct arthropod families per house.
The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae).
Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape.
As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species.
Evidence of arthropod vectors in caves inhabited by prehistoric people ca.
26,000 years ago suggests that pestiferous arthropods, such as blood-feeding kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae), lived alongside our ancestors (Araújo et al., 2009).
Among the first examples of cave art is a depiction of a camel cricket (Rhaphidophoridae) (Chopard, 1928; Belles, 1997).
As human society changed over time, arthropods successfully—and rapidly—made use of our bodies and resources for food and shelter.
Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity.
These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives.
Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications.